Avoid aging with this one weird trick

autophagy
I’ve written a lot about intermittent fasting and how it is a uniquely healthful practice. One of the main reasons for this is that it enables the process of autophagy to be upregulated. Autophagy, which comes from the Greek for “self-eating” is the regulated process of cellular self-cleaning which occurs on a daily basis in all healthy cells. Autophagy normally proceeds at a low, basal level during the fed state, but fasting causes it to increase; this makes sense from a mechanistic point of view, since one of the reasons for autophagy is to provide the body with nutrients when food is unavailable. The main nutrients provided are amino acids, which autophagy produces when proteins are broken down.

That autophagy is self-cleaning can be seen in the fact that cellular “junk”, that is, misfolded proteins, organelles such as mitochondria that have passed their sell-by date, as well as viruses and bacteria are the first things to go when autophagy increases. In this way, autophagy keeps cells in their efficient, youthful state, and thus retards aging. It’s been shown that cells from long-lived individuals, i.e. centenarians, have higher rates of autophagy than the merely old (75 years). Conversely, diminished autophagy plays a major role in aging. Maintaining clean cells is important to slowing aging.

I noted recently that most people used to do intermittent fasting all the time, without knowing it. The reason for this is that, until the advent of refrigerators and later, fast and convenience food, most people would eat dinner in the evening and then have nothing else to eat until breakfast, so a fast of maybe 12 hours was normal. It happens that autophagy is strongly increased at night because of this fasting. Both the more-than-usual provision of food, as well as aging, will cause the process of autophagy to decrease and to occur less often.

As mentioned, one consequence of autophagy besides the maintenance of “clean” cells is providing amino acids to the bloodstream and thus the rest of the body during fasting, when food is unable to do so. The main signal for autophagy to start and to increase is decreased concentration of the amino acid leucine in the blood. Readers may recognize leucine as a key signaling molecule for the growth of muscle; the opposite occurs with leucine too, namely decreased concentration signals for muscle to be broken down.

One of the more important amino acids besides leucine that increases in the blood during autophagy is cysteine, which is the key component of the important tripeptide glutathione. The main function of glutathione is to protect cells against oxidative stress by eliminating free radicals, aka reactive oxygen species; it is the body’s most important internal antioxidant. In aging, oxidative stress increases, and glutathione levels decrease, and this is so characteristic of aging that some have even asked whether aging is a cysteine deficiency syndrome, on the basis that declining levels of cysteine mean lower glutathione levels, which mean greater oxidative stress.

So, if you’re with me so far, as we age, the process of autophagy, which is turned on and off by blood leucine levels, dimishes in power, meaning that less cysteine is provided during periods of fasting, causing lower glutathione levels, lower antioxidant capacity, and increased oxidative stress.

Here’s the one weird trick. As mentioned, autophagy is regulated by levels of leucine in the blood, but in aging, the ability to respond to leucine by increasing autophagy decreases. The cells in an aging body simply cannot turn autophagy on at the same level that would turn it on in youthful cells. the trick: decrease levels of leucine during the fasting phase so that even with diminished autophagy capacity, autophagy is started.

How do you do this? Very simple: drink water at night. This will dilute the bloodstream and hence the leucine in it, causing autophagy to be started and/or increased. Thus more cysteine will enter the blood, glutathione will be made from it, and oxidative stress decreased.

Leave a Comment:

17 comments
Brendan says December 6, 2014

Does it follow that booze near bedtime, which obviously dehydrates, increases sleeping leucine concentration?

Reply
    P. D. Mangan says December 6, 2014

    Might do so, don’t know how significant that would be.

    Reply
Pete says December 7, 2014

A well thought out analysis. Nice article.

Reply
    P. D. Mangan says December 7, 2014

    Thanks, Pete.

    Reply
D says December 7, 2014

So it should work during the day also…..if fasting during the day?

Reply
    P. D. Mangan says December 7, 2014

    Yes, I see no reason why it wouldn’t.

    Reply
the Revision Division says December 7, 2014

[…] NEWS YOU CAN USE: Slow the aging process through intermittent fasting and drinking water. […]

Reply
Lee says December 7, 2014

Sorry, I’m confused.

”The main signal for autophagy to start and to increase is decreased concentration of the amino acid leucine in the blood.”, which is good.

But…”the opposite occurs with leucine too, namely decreased concentration signals for muscle to be broken down”, which is bad, right?

So, how do I know if my leucine levels are prompting autophagy, or causing the breakdown of my body’s muscle, or does both happen simultaneously?

Reply
    P. D. Mangan says December 7, 2014

    Pretty much simultaneously. Muscle is built and broken down cyclically. When you eat, it’s built; fast, it’s broken down. Maybe you’ve heard of bodybuilders taking protein, especially casein, at bedtime, in order to keep muscle synthesis going and prevent muscle breakdown while sleeping. That will work, but it also abolishes autophagy.

    Reply
Morgan says December 8, 2014

It’d be interesting if something like loss of appetite was the body’s way of triggering autophagy to try to clean up. I have no idea if it’s even anything to do with this, but I sometimes wonder why if you need energy to get better your body would make you feel less hungry.

Good article

Reply
George Ironthumb says December 19, 2014

Muscles or Lonegvity?

But to be honest I really dont bother much about eating at midnight (except if Im still awake)

Yes, you might increase your muscle breakdown while you sleep, but the trick is that I eat the most nutritious and my most hearthy meal for dinner – and they’re always home cooked.

followed by a long sleep , I believe that it helps rather than deminish muscle, I don’t even need to take casein or whatever at 4 am, I’d rather sleep that away

Reply
The Optimal Anti-Aging Strategy - Rogue Health and Fitness says January 6, 2015

[…] are other ways to increase autophagy, such as drinking water at night or in the early morning. And a number of methods exist to overcome anabolic […]

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Muscle, fasting, and health: a rant - Rogue Health and Fitness says February 5, 2015

[…] increasing autophagy in humans, whether through fasting, resveratrol, curcumin, exercise, or even drinking water at night, will result in better health and longer life. Being in the fed state all the time could help you […]

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Stephen Werner says March 16, 2015

Another study:

Satchidananda Panda et al. Time-restricted feeding attenuates age-related cardiac decline in Drosophila. Science, March 2015 DOI: 10.1126/science.1256682

Synopsis here – http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150312143024.htm “You are when you eat: Limiting flies to specific eating hours protects their hearts against aging, study finds”

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Peter B. says March 4, 2016

Very interesting PD ! I never read this anywhere else. I realize that strenght training should be done after eating, but what about physical movement in general? Walking/cycling on an empty stomach enhances the need for building blocks and energy so perhaps spurs autophagy?

Reply
    P. D. Mangan says March 4, 2016

    Indeed it does, Peter, exercise induces autophagy, so if you walk or cycle on an empty stomach, that works.

    Reply
Fasting and the Mechanism of Longevity - Rogue Health and Fitness says July 22, 2016

[…] Drink water at night. This unusual way of increasing autophagy works by diluting the bloodstream. Leucine is the amino acid regulator of autophagy, and when it rises sufficiently due to the breakdown of tissues, autophagy stops. By drinking water at night (during fasting), the leucine concentration in blood drops, thus restarting autophagy. […]

Reply
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