How to Increase Insulin Sensitivity, and Why

Insulin sensitivity means how sensitive the cells of the body are to the effects of insulin, the hormone that promotes the uptake of nutrients, especially glucose, into cells. Good insulin sensitivity is crucial for good health as well as healthy aging. Here we’ll discuss how to increase insulin sensitivity, and why.

Why should you increase insulin sensitivity?

Let’s start with the “why” first, since learning why insulin sensitivity is important will motivate you to get and maintain it.

When you eat any kind of food (other than pure fat), the beta cells of the pancreas secrete insulin so that nutrients enter cells to be used for energy, growth, and repair.

If your body requires only a minimal amount of insulin to do this job, you are highly insulin sensitive.

Image result for pancreas insulin

The opposite of insulin sensitivity is insulin resistance, which is any condition in which the body requires more than the minimum for nutrients to enter cells. Insulin resistance is strongly associated with obesity, although many normal weight people are also insulin resistant. To compensate for insulin resistance, the pancreas produces more insulin, leading to hyperinsulinemia.

You should care about insulin sensitivity because it is associated with many diseases, most notably type 2 diabetes, but also heart disease and cancer.

When insulin resistance gets very high, and the body can no longer produce enough insulin to compensate, blood glucose rises and type 2 diabetes exists.

Insulin resistance, not cholesterol, is one of the main causes of heart disease. High blood insulin, or hyperinsulinemia, very likely plays a major role in the development of cancer.

In lab animals, even small (~25%) decreases in circulating insulin levels result in a substantial increase in lifespan.

Why does insulin sensitivity decrease?

When you eat carbohydrates, they are broken down to glucose for use as fuel.

If you ingest more carbohydrates than can be readily burned, the resulting glucose is made into glycogen, the storage form of glucose, and stored in the liver and skeletal muscles. The glycogen in the liver is used to maintain a constant supply of blood glucose, and muscles keep glycogen on tap for use at high intensities of exertion.

If you don’t regularly use up your stored glycogen, and/or you ingest too much high-carbohydrate food, the liver and muscles become essentially saturated with glycogen, and the cells with glucose.

Insulin resistance results. Insulin resistance is the cells’ way of saying “No more glucose, please.”

In insulin resistance, insulin levels in the blood rise to compensate for decreased efficiency. Ultimately, diabetes can result.

How to increase insulin sensitivity

There are two main ways to increase insulin sensitivity:

  1. diet
  2. exercise.

Diet: In the case of diet, the answer to increased insulin sensitivity is simple: cut the carbohydrates.

A low-carbohydrate diet, at 21 grams a day (which is very low and induces ketosis), and not restricted in calories, caused a 75% increase in insulin sensitivity in only 14 days in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. It also resulted in 1.65 kg (3.6 pounds) of weight loss in the same time period. Note that calorie intake spontaneously decreased by over 1000 calories a day, so the improved insulin sensitivity may be due to either lower carbohydrate itself, or improved satiety through less carbohydrate and more fat and protein causing lower calorie intake. Either way, it works.

A so-called low carbohydrate diet consisting of 35% of calories as carbohydrate failed to improve insulin sensitivity. That’s not really a low-carbohydrate diet, so no wonder they didn’t get good results.

The reason for low-carbohydrate diets increasing insulin sensitivity is simple: you quit flooding your system with glucose. Eventually, the glycogen tank declines, and insulin sensitivity increases. You’re no longer trying to stuff glucose into an overfilled tank.

To increase insulin sensitivity through your diet, eat little or no refined carbohydrates (basically anything made with flour such as bread and pasta), no sugar, and no vegetable oils. Omega-6 fatty acids from vegetable oils initiate or aggravate insulin resistance, while omega-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oil prevent insulin resistance.

Fasting and/or a very low calorie (crash) diet may not only increase insulin sensitivity but cure diabetes.

Exercise: Exercise, both aerobic exercise and resistance training (weightlifting) increase insulin sensitivity.

In exercise, the body burns both fat and carbohydrate (glycogen). At low intensity, say walking, fat-burning predominates. At high intensity, the body uses a higher proportion of glycogen.

Therefore, high-intensity exercise ought to burn more glycogen and improve insulin sensitivity the best. Does it?

Indeed, a mere two weeks of high-intensity interval training (stationary cycling), for a total of 6 sessions, increased insulin sensitivity by 35%. GLUT4 receptors, which take up glucose into muscles, increased in number comparably to high volume endurance training.

Another study showed that only two weeks of high-intensity interval training, for a grand total of 15 minutes of exercise over the two weeks (sic), improved insulin sensitivity. The subjects were young, healthy men, not diabetics.

Increasing your insulin sensitivity through exercise is a matter of both intensity, and volume. If you exercise at lower intensity, you need more volume, since you won’t be burning as much glycogen. At high intensity, much less volume is required to increase insulin sensitivity.

The same applies to lifting weights: insulin sensitivity improves more when you lift at high intensity.

Conclusion

Good insulin sensitivity is critical for health, arguably one of the most critical factors for staying healthy.

Insulin sensitivity is mainly a result of lifestyle factors, notably a diet low in refined carbohydrates, sugar, and industrial seed oils, as well as exercise. High-intensity exercise is particularly good for increasing insulin sensitivity, since it helps burn glycogen and deplete glycogen storage.

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Leave a Comment:

19 comments
Bill says July 17, 2017

PD, this past week I discovered Dr Malcolm Kendrick’s 33 articles on the causes heart disease. And in there is also an article on Type 2 Diabetes. Kendrick sets out the causal relationship in a different way which I think ties in with what you have written. In brief he says :

1 : You eat too much carbohydrate/sugar
2: You produce too much insulin
3 This forces your body to store fat
4 : You become obese
5 : At a certain point insulin resistance develops to BLOCK further weight gain
6 :This resistance becomes more and more severe until…
7 : You become diabetic

https://drmalcolmkendrick.org/2015/07/19/what-happens-to-the-carbs-part-ii/

Faced with a choice of becoming insulin resistant or becoming obese, the body is programmed to block further weight gain – which I guess is from an evolutionary perspective. As being very obese in nature is definitely unfit for survival.

Note this does not change in any way, what needs to be done to get rid of insulin sensitivity : we need to back off the carbs & sugar. A low carb diet ! But I think it helps understand the process of becoming diabetic.

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    Bill says July 17, 2017

    PD this article by Robert Lustig. Maryanne Demassi & Aseem Malhotra, may also be of interest to you as well (Demassi by the way lost her job as a science reporter at the Australian Broadcasting Corporation in 2014 after she helped produce 2 TV programs ( nCalalyst ) challenging the high carb low LCL-C dogmas.

    http://www.pharmaceutical-journal.com/opinion/insight/the-cholesterol-and-calorie-hypotheses-are-both-dead-it-is-time-to-focus-on-the-real-culprit-insulin-resistance/20203046.article

    Reply
      P. D. Mangan says July 17, 2017

      Thanks, Bill, that article is linked in my article.

      Reply
    P. D. Mangan says July 17, 2017

    While Dr. Kendrick’s theory here may be correct for obese people, it doesn’t seem to explain insulin resistance in normal weight people, which is common. Possibly in normal weight people, they’ve reached a weight that is their set point for obesity, i.e. even at a normal weight, their body is physiologically obese.

    Reply
      Bill says July 17, 2017

      That could indeed be the case PD for some few luckier folk.. I guess it’s genetics. My wife is Filipina and she eats rice like water and is as fit as I am…A filipina ‘Ninjaette’…or maybe something changes as we age…

      Reply
Jerome Verhasselt says July 17, 2017

Typo in: “The reason for low-carbohydrate diets increasing insulin is simple: you quit flooding your system with glucose.”.

increasing > decreasing

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    P. D. Mangan says July 17, 2017

    Thanks, Jerome, I’ll fix that.

    Reply
JP says July 17, 2017

Given that insulin resistance cannot be measured directly, how do you know whether or not your efforts to increase insulin resistance have succeeded?

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Drifter says July 17, 2017

Something I’ve been wondering is if there is any evidence regarding whether someone who is insulin resistant (perhaps through genetics) but who keeps insulin and bodily sugars at low levels through use of a well-constructed LCHF diet is any worse off than someone who is insulin sensitive. I seem to remember seeing some research on this recently but I can’t seem to find it again. Has anyone seen anything on this topic?

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    P. D. Mangan says July 17, 2017

    Hi Drifter – generally if someone is insulin sensitive they also have low circulating insulin.

    Reply
Max says July 20, 2017

It may be interesting to note that, in addition to a very low carbohydrate diet improving insulin resistance, the “opposite” also seems true: very high-carbohydrate but extremely low fat – less than 10%) also dramatically improve insulin resistance and can reverse type 2 diabetes. So it seems not as simple as carbs=sugar=bad. This is also borne out in the traditional diets of so-called Blue Zones, where carbs > 90% of total calories and diabetes is rare.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2677007/

Important to note that both styles of eating have their challenges. VLC is not easily sustained and may stress the thyroid, kidneys and microbiome. VLF basically requires a pure vegan eating pattern which is restrictive and may be missing essential nutrients.

My personal takeaway is that the combination of “sweet fat”, refined carbs and fatty acids, is deadly!

Thanks as always for the great posts, Dennis.

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TT says July 21, 2017

PD what do you think about using Cilantro to reduce iron?

Nice testimonial here https://raypeatforum.com/community/threads/cilantro-works-finally-reduced-my-ferritin-serum-iron-and-transferrin-saturation.14371/

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    P. D. Mangan says July 21, 2017

    Well, if it works it works, I doubt if it’s harmful.

    Reply
Ole says July 22, 2017

Sounds like a win-win, since cilantro is also an effecient mercury chelator.

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Nick says July 23, 2017

“In exercise, the body burns both fat and carbohydrate (glycogen). At low intensity, say walking, fat-burning predominates.”

Just to help layman-me…no fat burning actually occurs when exercising in the fed state regardless of intensity though, right?

A friend of mine (71, vegetarian for probably 30 years, diagnosed with T2D several years ago, thinks golf is exercise) thinks T2D is not really reversible, as the pancreas becomes permanently damaged. The liver, OTOH, can recover from abuse, according to him. Do we know anything about this?

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    P. D. Mangan says July 24, 2017

    Hi Nick – yes, fat burning by mitochondria occurs in the fed state, but that’s not incompatible with fat being stored at the same time, since you’ve just eaten, have a lot of energy on board.

    As for T2D, there are numerous cases of cures, and I don’t think it’s 100% proven that the pancreas is damaged beyond repair in T2D. What is happening in all cases is that the pancreas can’t make enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance, and therefore blood glucose increases to abnormally high levels. You might show your friend this article.

    Reply
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