We show evidence for low doses of γ rays preventing spontaneous hyperplastic foci and adenomas in the lungs of mice, presumably via activating natural anticancer defenses. The evidence partly relates to a new study we conducted whereby a small number of female A/J mice received 6 biweekly dose fractions (100 mGy per fraction) of γ rays to the total body which prevented the occurrence of spontaneous hyperplastic foci in the lung. We also analyzed data from a much earlier Oak Ridge National Laboratory study involving more than 10,000 female RFMf/Un mice whereby single γ-ray doses from 100 to 1,000 mGy prevented spontaneous lung adenomas. We point out the possibility that the decrease in lung cancer mortality observed in The National Lung Screening Trial Research Team study involving lung tumor screening using low-dose computed tomography (CT) may relate at least in part to low-dose X-rays activating the body’s natural anticancer defenses (i.e., radiation hormesis). This possibility was apparently not recognized by the indicated research team.