(WASHINGTON, September 1, 2011) – For the first time, researchers have successfully injected cultured red blood cells (cRBCs) created from human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into a human donor, according to study results published today in Blood, the Journal of the American Society of Hematology (ASH). As the global need for blood continues to increase while the number of blood donors is decreasing, these study results provide hope that one day patients in need of a blood transfusion might become their own donors.
Using HSCs (stem cells that form all blood cell types) from one human donor, a Paris-based research team successfully generated billions of cRBCs in a petri dish with the aid of specific growth factors that regulate the proliferation and maturation of HSCs into red blood cells. Seeking to prove that the cRBCs were capable of reaching full maturation in the body, the researchers then injected the cells into four mouse models and confirmed that the cells were able to progress through the full maturation process. Using a volunteer donor, the researchers then repeated the process of creating another set of cRBCs and injected the cells back into the donor’s own body to assess their survival in a human. After five days, the survival rate of the cRBCs in the donor’s bloodstream was between 94 and 100 percent and, after 26 days, the rate was between 41 and 63 percent, comparable to the average 28-day half-life of normal native red blood cells. These results demonstrate that the lifespan and survival rate of cultured cells are similar to conventional red blood cells, further supporting their validity as a possible source of transfusion.
Basically, instead of blood donors, blood for transfusion will be grown in some sort of vat. This will not only make the blood supply independent of donors, but will obviate the need for crossmatching or finding rare units of blood for difficult cases. All blood could be O negative – the universal donor – and could be negative for all the major, troublesome antigens (Kell, Fya, etc.). But when this will happen is anyone’s guess.